which race has the most inbreeding in america

Non-Hispanic White women had the lowest abortion rate (6.6 abortions per 1,000 women) and ratio (117 abortions per 1,000 live births), and non-Hispanic Black women had the highest abortion rate (23.8 abortions per 1,000 women) and ratio (386 abortions per 1,000 live births). Women in their 20s accounted for more than half of abortions (56.9%), according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control in 2019 (the last year that data was available). We analyzed genetic diversity at thousands of genetic markers across the entire genome in more than 10,000 Thoroughbred horses from all of the major breeding regions of the world. By Eric Jensen, senior technical expert for Demographic Analysis; Nicholas Jones, director and senior advisor for Race and Ethnicity Research and Outreach; Kimberly Orozco, demographic statistician; Lauren Medina, demographic statistician; Marc Perry, senior demographer; Ben Bolender, senior advisor; and Karen Battle, chief, Population Division, Improvements to the 2020 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Question Designs, Data Processing, and Coding Procedures, The Census Geocoder - Group Quarters Assistance, Measuring Racial and Ethnic Diversity for the 2020 Census, Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), Improvements to the 2020 Census Hispanic Origin and Race Questions and Coding Procedures, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI). The statistics here cover a variety of topics, from 8th grade reading . This reduction in fitness associated with inbreeding can result in reduced fertility10,11, viability12,13 and a wide range of other general disorders14. The topic is a little sensitive and might need some extra explanation. Maybe, though, Daryn, youre uncomfortable with the notion of a romantic relationship with a first cousin, or anyone with whom you have a high inbreeding coefficient. Further data would be needed to explore these relationships. Joshi, P. K. et al. Their densities are represented by population (dashed lines) or for the Indo-Iranian and Turko-Mongol groups (solid lines). The ASPI found that for a few fields, all of the world's top 10 research institutions are in China, and they collectively generate nine times more high-impact research papers than the second . This might come as a shock, especially if youre from Kentucky. Heres the data by gender. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Black or African American alone, non-Hispanic, American Indian and Alaska Native alone, non-Hispanic, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, non-Hispanic. Clinical Genetics 60, 8998 (2008). Bestselling self-help author Marianne Williamson, who brought quirky spiritualism to the 2020 presidential race, has announced she is running for the White House again, becoming the first major . By applying a public health approach incorporating three essential elementssurveillance or disease tracking, research to identify causes, and prevention research and programswe can rapidly translate scientific findings into appropriate public health interventions. Located in Girdwood, Alaska, about an hour's drive from Anchorage, Alyeska Resort is a luxury ski destination with 1,600 skiable acres, 76 trails, and an average of almost 700 inches of snow each . Pediatric Research. From the rankings on 2010 Census data, we find: The diffusion score measures the percentage of the population that is not in the first-, second- or third-largest racial and ethnic groups combined. Theyre a bit shorter than most Holsteins, and also heavier. This progeny testing was a valuable process, but it took several years to determine if a bull was any good. Slider with three articles shown per slide. The hope is that they might one day be able to inject some sorely needed genetic diversity back into this cornerstone of livestock agriculture, and possibly reawaken traits that have been lost to relentless inbreeding. In humans, its the process of reproducing with your close relatives. The majority of women who abort are mothers. Woods, C. G. et al. To assess consanguinity, researchers give relationships an inbreeding coefficient the higher the number, the closer the two individuals are related. Human Molecular Genetics 15, 789795 (2006). Based on the local minimum of the distance densities, we set the limit for geographical exogamy at 4km and found the percentage of exogamous couples per population to be significantly higher in the 12 Turko-Mongol populations (60% on average,from 33% to 84%) than in the four Indo-Iranians (28% on average, from 6% to 60%) (Supplementary Fig. Hoogland, J. L. Prairie Dogs Avoid Extreme Inbreeding. It is similar to the prevalence ranking approach shown above. It is believed that this is partially because people have moved to the mountains in eastern Kentucky for the low cost of living and the lifestyle. Mitton, J. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Ims, R. a. We further verified these results when taking into account potential confounding factors such as the age and sex ratio within each population, various environmental variables (altitude, ecosystem), as well as lifestyle (urban/rural and sedentary/nomadic) (Supplementary Table1B). Inbreeding is more common in the following states: Washington, Oregon, Montana, South Dakota, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Maine. Pusey, A. E. & Packer, C. The Evolution of Sex-Biased Dispersal in Lions. There will be no more improvement in milk production. Continue reading with a Scientific American subscription. We defined exogamous couples as those with spouses born at more than 4km (average population local minima based on Fig. Inbreeding is common, specifically, in the eastern part of Kentucky, and the region is plagued by the stereotype that every family is an inbred family. Figure 3 shows a hypothetical population with four unequally sized groups and a DI of 70%. PubMed Oedipus complex; This is a Freudian term describing a childs sexual attraction to their parent. Knowledge awaits. Close inbreeding and low genetic diversity in Inner Asian human populations despite geographical exogamy, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27047-3. Have a question you would like answered here? Roy-Gagnon, M. H. et al. In The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives 1741 (University of Chicago Press, 1993). At least 10% of humans descend from parents that are related as second cousins or closer, based on registers as well as civil and medical surveys1. Using an empirical threshold of 4km, we confirmed that matrimonial behaviours differ as described in the literature, even though we found some exceptions: three Turko-Mongol populations (out of 14) have less than 50% exogamy, whereas one Indo-Iranian population (out of four) has more than 50% exogamy. For ethnicity, the OMB standards classify individuals in one of two categories: Hispanic or Latino or Not Hispanic or Latino. We use the term Hispanic or Latino interchangeably with the term Hispanic, and also refer to this concept as ethnicity.. PubMedGoogle Scholar. The oldest of these animals are about two and two now have calves of their own. All rights reserved. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After merging the arrays, we obtained data for 253,532 SNPs, including 105,858 independent SNPs (r2<0.5). Those laws might make some individuals reluctant to say they are in a consanguineous relationship and result in some undercounting of relationships. Of the 78 countries assessed in the 2021 Best Countries report, the U.S. ranked 69th, or the 10th worst, for racial equality, finishing lower than China, a country the international community has. : Tajikistan, AFG. Google Scholar. The lowest diffusion score was in West Virginia at 2.1%. CAS Our genomic data allowed us to untangle drift inbreeding, which is due to small population sizes, from mating choice inbreeding, which is due to matrimonial preferences. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. As a consequence, close inbreeding exists despite geographical exogamy, and about a third of descendants from exogamous couples are inbred. maps: Draw Geographical Maps. As part of the unrest, members of local communities have blocked access to one of . Sorry, UFO Hunters--You Might Just Be Looking at a Spy Balloon, Science, Quickly - By Sophie Bushwick and Tulika Bose, Building Resilience in the Face of Climate Change [Sponsored], Science, Quickly - By Scientific American Custom Media, How Do We Find Aliens? The women are indeed likely to be low income, but are also likely to be educated (and in graduate school). based on three-component Gaussian fitting of the ROH length distribution, using Mclust from the mclust package (v.579) in R) resulting in what we call intermediate (class B-ROHs) and long ROHs (class C-ROHs). Incest is, The topic is a little sensitive and might need some extra explanation. Keep up with the latest data and most popular content. Where is it happening in the US? E.H. and L.S. American journal of human genetics 61, 70518 (1997). Kaplanis, J. et al. Larmuseau, M. H. D., Van Geystelen, A., van Oven, M. & Decorte, R. Genetic genealogy comes of age: Perspectives on the use of deep-rooted pedigrees in human population genetics. Verdu, P. et al. The Genetic Basis of Kin Recognition in a Cooperatively Breeding Mammal. Read More Something needs to change, Hansen says. The most common reasons for inbreeding are to; This means that inbreeding is common in areas with small populations which are not exposed regularly to outsiders. Pusey, A. In the early days of artificial insemination, bulls would have to prove their merit in real life. CAS Similarly, in terms of genetic diversity, the population exogamy rates are not associated with haplotypic heterozygosities (Spearmans correlation test: p-value>0.29 for Turko-Mongols and p-value=0.75 for Indo-Iranians). The DI is bounded between 0 and 1, with a zero-value indicating that everyone in the population has the same racial and ethnic . Our analyses within present-day Turko-Mongols reveal more specifically that the structure of the relationship between geographical distance and mating choice inbreeding is not linear, but rather tends to be bell-shaped, and thus cannot be correctly assessed with a single correlation test. With all the time spent on marriage and inbreeding, its essential to find out what the law says. Furthermore, a likelihood ratio test was performed to assign each individual as inbred or outbred. In many species, there are no other options. The blue skin gene is a recessive gene that only appears when both parents are carriers of the gene. Journal of Medical Genetics 26, 267271 (1989). Al-Gazali, L., Hamamy, H. & Al-Arrayad, S. Genetic disorders in the Arab world. To investigate inbreeding avoidance, we compared the observed homozygous proportion of each individual genome to the expectation under random mating60. However, as Pemberton et al.3 showed that these ROH thresholds can be variable between populations, we also used population-specific categories defined from their ROH size classification method (i.e. See Supplementary Table1B for population codes. Saving Lives, Protecting People, CDCs National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Ways to Lower the Risk of Neural Tube Defects, Birth Defects are Common, Costly, and Critical, Birth Defects and Infant Disorders Resources, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Birth defects affect one in every 33 babies (about 3% of all babies) born in the United States each year. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. To test whether these patterns depend on the cultural context, these questions should be addressed in other human populations, for example, Canadian populations71 or European isolates72 for whom genealogical detailed data and genomic data are already available. George Santos deception, classified documents, and marching in D.C. War in Ukraine, Ministry Check website, and more Executive Committee news. And why does it matter? Today, the average Holstein is producing more than 23,000. They also overcome some of the limitations of the diversity measures we have used in the past. Surprisingly, in our dataset, the exogamy rate per population (defined with a limit of 4 to 50km) is significantly correlated neither with the percentage of closely inbred individuals nor with the proportion of first-cousins descendants (Spearmans correlation test p-value>0.1 for all populations, only Turko-Mongols or only Indo-Iranians). This suggests that in Inner Asia, geographical exogamy is neither efficient in increasing genetic diversity nor in avoiding inbreeding, which might be due to kinship endogamy despite the occurrence of dispersal. Fertility rates are affected by inbreeding, and already, Holstein fertility has dropped significantly. Such a deficit of inbreeding could be due to the avoidance of close kin matings (i.e., brother-sister) that are proscribed in all societies64 or to other pre/post-copulatory mechanisms, and this remains an open question. It turns out Star, and his prolific son, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, had problematic recessive genes that didnt come to light until a few generations of inbreeding. The United States has a long history of inbreeding, with about 250,000 of the population marrying a first cousin at some time in their family history. In contrast, larger communities have more opportunities to meet and inter-marry. The Thoroughbred is unusual in that most managed animal and even plant-production systems have genetic monitoring in place. Redden, D. T. & Allison, D. B. Robert, A., Toupance, B., Tremblay, M. & Heyer, E. Impact of inbreeding on fertility in a pre-industrial population. : Afghanistan, PAK. Murdock, G. P. Ethnographic Atlas: A Summary. McQuillan, R. et al. Correspondence to Send it to@MonaChalabi or dearmona@fivethirtyeight.com. Ten questions about dispersal evolution. Saccheri, I. et al. CDC works to identify causes of birth defects and opportunities to prevent them. High global prevalence is in itself a reason to study consanguinity about 10.4 percent of the worlds population is married to a second cousin or closer, or is the product of such a union: Thats about 750 million people. We can also measure racial and ethnic diversity using prevalence rankings and the diffusion score. Sebro, R. & Risch, N. J. Why is this? While inbreeding is incredibly taboo in the United States, it is somewhat legal in some states. But the Thoroughbred has no genomic selection or population management that is addressed at an industry-wide level., The study by Hill and her colleagues is in the journal Scientific Reports. Note that the Kel population is composed of Northern Asian Kyrgyz from two different locations, and that Kaz and Uzb, as well as Akz and Tlg, were sampled at the same location, respectively. The final conceptual approach to illustrate the racial and ethnic diversity of the population is to map the most prevalent racial or ethnic group for all counties in the United States. As inbreeding information is lacking for Inner Asia, our data complete the global picture of mating choice inbreeding prevalence. In other words, we could reach a point where were stuck where were at. The R journal 8, 289317 (2016). See Supplementary Table1Bfor population codes. But without genetic diversity, you can get health and behavior issues related to inbreeding. Firman, R. C. & Simmons, L. W. Gametic interactions promote inbreeding avoidance in house mice. The majority-minority approach is ambiguous, and it is further complicated by complex demographic and social realities. The White population remained the largest race or ethnicity group in the United States, with 204.3 million people identifying as White alone. American journal of human genetics 32, 44552 (1980). R version by Ray Brownrigg. Dairy experts continue to debate this. However, when we instead defined boundaries per population with a model-based clustering algorithm as conducted in Pemberton et al.51, we obtained different thresholds for the ROH classes: on average, class B (intermediate) ROHs range between 885 and 2,647kb, while class C (long) ROHs are above 2,647kb (Supplementary Table1A). The SNPs data has been deposited at the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), under accession number EGAS00001002951. That required digging into the archives of theNational Animal Germplasm Programin Fort Collins, Colorado. Out of the group, 125 people met the inbreeding criteria, meaning the parents were either first-degree relatives (siblings) or second-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, etc.). The Fugates of Kentucky, who have lived for centuries in Pike County in the Appalachian Mountains, is a family of people with an inherited disorder. . We estimated the population exogamy rate and confirmed the expected dispersal differences: Turko-Mongols are geographically more exogamous than Indo-Iranians. Indeed, we found that Turko-Mongol populations have a lower genetic diversity (as measured by the mean haplotypic heterozygosity) and more intermediate ROHs associated with drift inbreeding than those of Indo-Iranians despite higher exogamous rates. Not too long ago, there was another Y chromosome represented, that of Penstate Ivanhoe Star, born in the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such quantitative data have been combined in humans or in any other species. Human Genetics 129, 521531 (2011). Horse racing has been a sport for centuries. Thats a problem. 1A, Supplementary Table1, one-tailed MWU test p-value=0.021). the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in With all the time spent on marriage and inbreeding, its essential to find out what the law says. Inbreeding refers to the mating of genetically related individuals who share a common ancestor, which occurs in many species. Levrro, F. et al. We only detect significantly lower values in descendants from exogamous couples for larger distances above 40 and 50km (p-values<0.03). Conrad, D. F. et al. Dairy farmers today are already struggling financially, and its not easy to convince them theres a benefit to getting DNA from average bulls. Follow Eliene Augenbraun on Twitter. The Perks Workers Want Also Make Them More Productive, May 15, 2015, 3 Tips For Finding The Best Meal Replacement Online, Ultimate Guide On Dealing With Motorcycle Accident Claim, Top Factors To Consider When Buying Night Vision Goggles, Payroll Deductions: The Ultimate Guide For Business Owners, How To Wash Barefoot Dreams Blanket: A Step-By-Step Guide. If you need to go back and make any changes, you can always do so by going to our Privacy Policy page. With the DNA of a mare and the DNA of a stallion, we can make in silico predictions about the likely level of inbreeding in the hypothetical foal that might arise from that mating., [The above text is a transcript of this podcast. Marchi, N. et al. We tabulated the responses based on standard categories. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. PubMed Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Since then, no horsesoutside this lineagehave been permitted to enter the bloodline. At the individual scale, the offspring of such close relatives are prone to carry a genetic burden5. He went on to explain why he thinks humanity is capable of overcoming this current wave of anti . Laurent, R. & Chaix, R. MHC-dependent mate choice in humans: Why genomic patterns from the HapMap European American dataset support the hypothesis. Thank you for taking the time to confirm your preferences. Inbreeding in Thoroughbreds has increased significantly in the past 45 years, with the greatest rise occurring in the past 15 or so of them. Sacks, O. We computed allele-sharing dissimilarity (ASD) distances77 between individuals using the software asd46 (see Supplementary Materials and Methods). The diffusion score was highest in Hawaii at 20.1%, indicating that one-fifth of the population was in a racial or ethnic group that was not one of the three largest groups for the state. Pregnancy rates in the 1960s were 35 to 40 percent, but by 2000 had dropped to 24 percent. It also happens naturally when two small groups of the same species live in isolation from each other and intermarry over generations. We wish to thank W. Carpentier (Plate-forme Post-Gnomique de la Piti-Salptrire), B. Regnault and L. Leme (Institut Pasteur Genopole) for the genotyping processing; L. Berman for developing the code to compute geographical distances; A-L. Leutenegger and S. Gazal for precious help with FSuite; and F. Austerlitz, R. Chaix, R. Laurent, G. Ly, and P. Verdu for constructive discussions; and E. Verzele. For example, while some people classify individuals who identify with multiple population groups (such as Hispanic and White; White and Black or African American; and White and Asian) as part of the majority population, others classify them as part of the minority population. More generally, it would be of great interest to elucidate the variability of mating choice among cultures by systematically investigating inbreeding, which is generally disregarded in human demographic studies75,76. CAS Overall, this research sheds light on mating choice preferences: we showed that two thirds of partners that have not dispersed did mate with unrelated individuals, and that drift and mating choice inbreeding is variable, even among close-by populations. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles Women aged 2024 and 2529 years accounted for the highest percentages of abortions (27.6% and 29.3%, respectively) and had the highest abortion rates (19.0 and 18.6 abortions per 1,000 women aged 2024 and 2529 years, respectively). As this result could only be due to differences in average exogamous proportions between groups, we also focused exclusively on exogamous couples (>4km) and found a tendency for larger distances for Turko-Mongol couples than for Indo-Iranians (60km and 42km, respectively, one-tailed MWU test p-value=0.023). Thanks for reading Scientific American. But the estimate that 0.2 percent of U.S. marriages are between people who are second cousins or closer needs to be treated with plenty of caution. Close inbreeding and low genetic diversity in Inner Asian human populations despite geographical exogamy. Article PubMed The next highest diffusion score was for Alaska with 15.1%, followed by Oklahoma with 14.3%. In the early 50s, there were about 1,800 bulls represented in the population. Human Mutation 27, 11151121 (2006). By this point, a highly sought-after bull would sire thousands of daughters. Even Select Sires, a company that is in the business of selling bull semen, was surprised by the findings. They came into light because of their rare blue skin condition, which occurs when the related parents pass down recessive genes onto an offspring. That thinness is a byproduct of milk production, because theyre directing the energy they consume towards milk, Dechow says. How often do police use excessive force during arrests? Artificial insemination is not permitted, which means that breeding stallions get moved around a lot for meetups with females. American Anthropologist 72, 503515 (1970). Written informed consent was obtained for all participants, and our sampling and analyses followed ethical principles approved by the Museum National dHistoire Naturelle (France), Ministry of Health (Altai Republic), Tuvan State University (Republic of Tuva), Khovd University (Mongolia) and Uzbek Academy of Sciences (Uzbekistan). We chose this new set of diversity measures the DI, prevalence maps, prevalence ranking, and diffusion scores because they have clear conceptual definitions and interpretations. This article will discuss inbreeding, its effects on human genes, and so much more. The most inbred states in the United States arent necessarily the ones youd expect. M.G. These prevalence maps show the geographic distribution of the largest or second-largest racial or ethnic group. The American Journal of Human Genetics 73, 516523 (2003). Original S code by Richard A. Becker and Allan R. Wilks. When we look across the country, we see a lot of variation in the diffusion scores by state in 2010. For each of the four ROH classes, we computed the number of ROHs observed within an individual genome and their total length. Northern Dancer won the Kentucky Derby in 1964. They knew there were fewer today, but they had no idea how few. You eliminate that cow from your breeding program because shes got 10 horrible genes, he says, and youve lost her 100 good ones, as well. For example, the diffusion score for the United States was 7.7% in 2010, as 7.7% of the population was not one of the three largest racial or ethnic groups. Meanwhile, the dairy world was keeping very detailed records, so the bull studs who sell the semen could tell which bull went on to produce the best offspringand by the best offspring, they meant the daughters who produced the most milk. We chose the individuals randomly to reach an average of approximately 30 individuals per population. Cookies used to make website functionality more relevant to you. Crepy, M. A. For each individual, based on both F-Median and A-Median, it was possible to estimate the probability to be the descendant of avunculars (AV), double first-cousins (2x1C), first-cousins (1C), second-cousins (2C), or unrelated individuals (OUT; defined as less related than second-cousins). The absence of accessible government data stymies candid discussion about how to drive and measure change. Runs of Homozygosity in European Populations. Using this likelihood test, we found that 36% of the individuals are inbred across populations with a similar average between Turko-Mongol and Indo-Iranian populations (35% and 36%, respectively; MWU test p-value=0.86). & Roberts, D. F. Kinship structure and heterozygosity on Tristan da Cunha. Inbreeding in Thoroughbreds has increased significantly in the past 45 years, with the greatest rise occurring in the past 15 or so of them. Thanks for reading Scientific American. Breeding pairs are chosen for their athletic prowess and competitive behavior, leading to strong selection for genes related to muscle performance and behavior Traits that all have to come together in the optimal fashion to produce an elite athlete.. As with Figure 5, we also see regional patterns in the racial and ethnic distribution of the population. Adolescents aged 1819 years accounted for the majority (70.2%) of adolescent abortions and had the highest adolescent abortion rates (8.6 and 12.2 abortions per 1,000 adolescents aged 18 and 19 years, respectively). Solving The Mystery, How To Clean Vapormax? CAS ADS In our 20- state list, we have found that the most incest occurs in the Bible Belt, where more than one way of life exists. The project was funded by theANR NUTGENEVOL (07-BLAN-0064); ANR Altrit culturelle (10-ESVS-0010); CNRS Programme international de collaboration scientifique. (That figure excludes data from California, Maryland, New . Hepper, P. G. Kin Recognition: Functions and Mechanisms a Review. Charlesworth, D. Effects of inbreeding on the genetic diversity of populations. 7). Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Still, there are typically no other families living in these locations. Fewer than 1 in 10 women (9%) who had an abortion in 2014 of abortion patients aged 20 or older had less than a high school degree, while the overwhelming majority 91% had graduated from high school. What is carbon capture and storage? Wright, S. Isolation by distance under diverse systems of mating. Grey lines in (B) represent inbreeding values corresponding to second-cousins and first-cousins. In the past, the Census Bureau had sometimes used the concept of majority and minority for measuring diversity, but this approach has several conceptual and practical challenges that limit its ability to illustrate the complex racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population. B. The reason is that people moved to the mountains where the cost of living is cheaper. First, we showed that inbreeding resulting from matings between relatives that are at least second-cousins indeed occurs in Inner Asia: on average, 36% of the individuals are inbred. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article Article Among the 44 areas that reported the number of previous induced abortions for 2019, the majority of women (58.2%) had previously had no abortions, 23.8% had previously had one abortion, 10.5% had previously had two abortions, and 7.5% had previously had three or more abortions. We collected ethno-demographic data for 1,344 individuals in 16 populations from two Inner Asian cultural groups with contrasting dispersal behaviours (Turko-Mongols and Indo-Iranians) and genotyped genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms in 503 individuals. In fact, Bittles himself first became interested in the topic during a research trip to the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore in 1977. We found that Turko-Mongols choose spouses born at larger distances than Indo-Iranians (a median of 17km and 0km, respectively; one-tailed Mann-Whitney U, or MWU, test p-value<0.001).

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which race has the most inbreeding in america